Artificial Intelligence: Myth or Not?

Haifaa I Faqeih


The aim of this article is to provide a brief outline of Artificial Intelligence (AI) by providing the definition of Artificial Intelligence, and summarising its history. Additionally I include a brief  exploration of the importance of AI and the differences between AI and Human Intelligence (HI). To have a clear overview, I underline the benefits of using AI and point to the implications and some observations on the subject. 
Definition of AI:The characteristics of AI were uncertainty and the cause of confusion over time. However, due to rapid developments, definitions that aremore recent speak of “imitating intelligent human behaviour,” which is already a much stronger definition (Kok, et al 2002).Burns, Laskowski, and Tucci (2023) define AI as the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computers. Specific applications of AI include expert systems, naturallanguage processing, speech recognition, and machine vision. Thereare many definitions, but most of them can be classified into systematic categories that rely on Algorithm (Kok, et al 2002).

The History of AI:

It is important to realise that since ancient times the concept of non-living objects endowed with intelligence has been around. Engineers inancient Egypt built the status of gods animated by priests. However, the foundation for AI concepts has been changed tremendously through the centuries, where thinkers from Aristotle until the present day use computational tools, logic, and different techniques to describe human thought processes as symbols (Burns, et al 2023).

How important is AI?

There are some important factors that need to be considered when talking about AI. It is commonly known that AI can process large amounts of data much faster and make predictions more accurate than humanly possible. Moreover, AI can take that data and quickly turn it into actionable information. Considering the benefits and challenges of all technological facets, some advantages of AI are listed in (Burns, etal 2020):1- Good at detailed oriented jobs2- Reduced time for data heavy tasks3- Saves labour and increases productivity4- Delivers consistent results5- Can improve customer satisfaction through personalisation6- AI powered virtual agents are always availableOn the other hand, AI may present a threat, which can be noticed in the challenges summarised in the following points stated in (Burns, et al 2023).

1- Expense and cost of technology

2- The requirement of deep technical expertise3- Limitations of qualified individuals well versed in the field4- Eliminates human jobs, increasing unemployment rates.

The above disadvantages lead to the following question:

Is AI replacing or substituting human intelligence? To answer this question, a clear summary of the different categories of strong and weak AI is shown below. It is also important to note the four types of AI as mentioned in (Burns, et al 2023).

The following divergence between weak and strong may elucidate the image of AI:
1- Weak AI is also known as narrow AI. This is designed andtrained to complete a specific task as in industrial robots and virtual personal assistants, such as Apple’s Siri.

2- Strong AI is known as artificial general intelligence (AGI) and describes programming that can replicate the cognitive abilities of the human brain. When presented with an unfamiliar task, a strong AI system can use fuzzy logic to copy data from one domain to another and find the result autonomously. In theory, a strong AI program should be able to pass both a Turing test and the Chinsesroom argument (Burns, et al 2023).

To have a clearer picture of the differences between AI and HI (Human Intelligence), I point to the following four types of AI:

Type 1: reactive machines which have no memory and are task-specific. Because AI has no memory, it cannot use past experiences to inform future ones.

Type 2: limited memory type of AI systems, which can use past experiences to inform future decisions. An example is the self-driving cars which are designed this way.

Type 3: theory of mind type which is relevant to psychology.When this type is applied to AI, it means the system would have the social intelligence to understand emotions. This type of AIwill be able to infer human intentions and predict behaviour.

Type 4: self-awareness type which has a sense of self-consciousness. Machines with self-awareness understand theirown current state. But this type of AI does not yet exist.

AI depends totally on the input (done by humans) AI can be used for accuracy and mass productionAI can be used for predictions and suggest solutions. AI can’t recognise individual differences HI can function anywhere anytime regardless of the light or dark but AI might need certain environments to function properly.The existence of AI depends on a devices program that is developed and fed by humans.

When AI is dangerous?

When data is not properly fed.

When it is overused.

When we depend on AI in every aspect of life.

When it is taking the place of humans.

When we believe machines can deal with our emotional behaviours.

When it uses fuzzy logic to apply knowledge and find solutions.

When AI is operated by non-professional and non-experts. 


From the above lines we find three key words (machine, system and algorithm) which demonstrate the real function of AI. This leads us to conclude that AI is a systematic machine relying on algorithm programming.


1- Burns, E., Laskowski, N. & Tucci, L. (2023). What is artificial intelligence (AI)? Updated March, 2023.

2- Kok, J. N., Boers, E. J. W., Kosters, W. A., Putten, P. V. D. and Poel, M. (2002), “Artificial Intelligence: Definition, Trends, Techniques, and Cases”, in Knowledge for sustainable development: an insight into the Encyclopaedia of life supportEncyclopaedia of Life Support Systems, UNESCO publishing.

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